Key research questions require answers to improve understanding of the scope of the DWI offender problem, particularly in relation to special sub-populations. Answers will support the development of effective and targeted intervention strategies and guide the application of these interventions in both urban and rural jurisdictions.
- What are the pathways leading to DWI offenses? To develop appropriate and effective prevention and intervention strategies, practitioners will benefit from information that guides effective identification, sanctioning, monitoring, and treating of DWI offenders early in the process to reduce repeat offending. Research should include better understanding of the individual characteristics and behaviors that are more likely to lead to drinking and driving, and commonalities among DWI offenders related to history, characteristics, or experiences.
- What are effective strategies for dealing with impaired driving offenders? Evaluation efforts should focus on a broad spectrum of interventions ranging from prevention and early intervention with a specific focus on high-risk individuals, to targeting persistent offenders. Existing impaired driving programs and policies should be evaluated for effectiveness to ensure funding is dedicated to those strategies producing the best outcomes.
- Are there targeted interventions effectively addressing specific types of impaired driving offenders? More research is needed to determine how best to reduce recidivism by specifically targeting the criminogenic needs and substance abuse and mental health issues of diverse categories of offenders.
- How can the use of sex-specific/sensitive strategies be implemented with effectiveness? To determine what types of approaches have had the greatest impact, research is needed to determine what interventions work best with each sex. This is needed because females’ life experiences are different than males, and often they are less responsive or even shut down in response to traditional confrontational approaches.
- What are financially viable strategies for rural jurisdictions? Rural areas tend to have higher levels of indigency, a lack of alternative sanctions or support services, and a lack of transportation options. It is critical that flexible strategies be explored and developed to enhance the ability of rural jurisdictions to implement necessary sanctions and programs and maximize the allocation of existing resources.
- What are effective strategies for intervening with polysubstance abuse offenders? Driving while impaired by drugs has become more prevalent. Research is needed to better understand the jurisdictional magnitude and characteristics of this problem, to identify ways to improve detection, and to develop appropriate interventions for dealing with this population of impaired drivers.